Learning concepts: Simplified for electrical circuit

Learning concepts

This class will translat into simple circuit which are taught in electricity lesson in government school. source littlebits.cc

Duration: 1 hour

Middle School (ages 11-13)
High School (ages 14-17)



bargraph (1)
button (1)
dimmer (1)
led (1)
power (1)
pulse (1)
vibration motor (1)


STEP 1 : What is Power Bit?

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Power bit is actually connecting the battery in series with a voltage regulator that step down the 9V battery to 5V output. This is Direct Current (DC) circuit with +5V and -0V (ground). This regulated 5V will be used by the input bits and output bits. Note: The power signal +5V is ignore to simplified the learning together by discarding the operational amplifier, current limiting rsistor, capacitor and zener diode.

STEP 2 : What is Button Bit?

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Button is a electrical devices that allow/disallow current to flow through the circuit. It is connected in series with the signal from adjacent bits. The button will connect the signal bits from the left side to the right side. All signal at (0 to 5V) will pass through when the button is press. Note:The limiting resistor and capacitor are ignore for easy understanding.

STEP 3 : What is Dimmer Bits?

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A dimmer is actually a potential meter or a variable resistor connected across the signal and ground. It act as a divider to divide the voltage as per the turning of the knob. The dimmer bit is connected in series with the signal but have a tap off point which can varies the incoming signal to ground. (0 to 5V output). If the incoming signal is 3V, then the variable output is 0 to 3V. (not 5V). Note: The operating amplifier (OP-AMP)and capacitor are ignored for easy understanding

STEP 4 : What is Pulse Bit?

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A Pulse bit is regulating (adding) the input sign into a pulse cycle output. The duty cycle is 50% which makes it a pulse output. The duration of the pulse or frequency is tune by turning the speed with a screwdriver. You can set during of pulse from 0.1 second to few seconds. The input will be the same as the output during the pulse output. The rest is ground. This continous operation will cause the signal to flashing. Note: The Integrated Circuits (IC), amperation amplifier, resistor, capacitor and AND gate are ignored for easy understanding.

STEP 5 : What is LED Bit?

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An LED bit or Light Emitting Diode which convert electrical energy into light energy. This LED is connect in parallel with the circuit. The voltage signal will determine the brightness of the LED which operates from 0 to 5V. Note: The operating amplifier (OP-AMP), resistor and capacitor are ignored for easy understanding.

STEP 6 : What is Vibration Motor Bit?

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Vibration Motor Bit convert electrical energy into kinetic energy. The strength of the vibration (kinetic energy) will various with the signal input (0 to 5V). The vibration motor is connect in parallel with the circuit. Note: Note: The operating amplifier (OP-AMP), motor IC, resistor and capacitor are ignored for easy understanding.

STEP 7 : What is Bargraph Bit?

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Bargraph bit is make up of 5 LED which is light up at various signal input. The LED are connected in parallel and are turn on at different voltage. The individual LED are on at 1V, 2V, 3V, 4V and 5V respectively. Therefore when 5V signal is connected, all 5 LED will light up. Therefore when 3V signal is connected, all 3 LED will light up. Note: The resistor and amplifier are ignored for easy understanding.